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白酒和黄酒有哪些区别?

来源:http://www.sdyuxianfang.com/
日期:2022-05-31

白酒和黄酒有哪些区别?中国的酒主要分黄酒和白酒两大类,白酒是要经过蒸馏设备和技术提高酒精的含量,改善丰富其品味,属于后起的发展。白酒之根在黄酒,故黄酒在中国饮食文化史上据有很高的地位。(黄酒是相对于白酒、葡萄酒等而言的大名,除绍兴黄酒以糯米为原料外,国内各地生产的许多黄酒也有以粳米、黍米、玉米、小米、小麦等作主要原料,经蒸煮、糖化、发酵、压榨、过滤、贮存、勾兑等工艺生产流程而成,不在本文之列。)

What are the differences between Baijiu and rice wine? Chinese liquor is mainly divided into two categories: yellow rice wine and Baijiu. Baijiu needs distillation equipment and technology to improve the content of alcohol and enrich its taste, which is a new development. The root of Baijiu lies in yellow rice wine, so yellow rice wine has a high position in the history of Chinese food culture. (yellow rice wine is a big name relative to Baijiu, wine, etc. in addition to Shaoxing yellow rice wine, many yellow rice wines produced in China also use japonica rice, millet, corn, millet, wheat, etc. as the main raw materials, which are produced through the process of cooking, saccharification, fermentation, pressing, filtration, storage, blending, etc., and are not included in this article.)
黄酒是我国的民族特产,也称为米酒(ricewine),属于酿造酒,在世界三大酿造酒(黄酒、葡萄酒和啤酒)中占有重要的一席。酿酒技术独树一帜,成为东方酿造界的典型代表和楷模。其中以浙江绍兴黄酒为代表的麦曲稻米酒是黄酒历史悠久、有代表性的产品;山东即墨老酒是北方粟米黄酒的典型代表;福建龙岩沉缸酒、福建老酒是红曲稻米黄酒的典型代表。
Yellow rice wine is a national specialty of China, also known as rice wine. It belongs to brewing wine and plays an important role in the world's three major brewing wines (yellow rice wine, wine and beer). The brewing technology is unique and has become a typical representative and model in the Oriental brewing industry. Among them, maiqu rice wine represented by Shaoxing rice wine in Zhejiang Province is a representative product with a long history of rice wine; Shandong Jimo old wine is a typical representative of corn yellow rice wine in the north; Fujian Longyan chentan liquor and Fujian old liquor are typical representatives of red koji rice wine.
黄酒属于酿造酒,酒度一般为15度左右。黄酒,顾名思义是黄颜色的酒。所以有的人将黄酒这一名称翻成“YellowWine”。其实这并不恰当。黄酒的颜色并不总是黄色的,在古代,酒的过滤技术并不成熟之时,酒是呈混浊状态的,当时称为“白酒”或浊酒。黄酒的颜色就是在现在也有黑色的,红色的,所以不能光从字面上来理解。
Yellow rice wine belongs to brewing wine, and its alcohol content is generally about 15 ℃. Yellow rice wine, as the name suggests, is yellow wine. So some people turn the name of yellow rice wine into "yellowwine". In fact, this is not appropriate. The color of yellow rice wine is not always yellow. In ancient times, when the filtering technology of wine was not mature, the wine was in a turbid state, which was called "Baijiu" or turbid wine at that time. The color of yellow rice wine is now black and red, so it can not be understood literally.
黄酒的实质应是谷物酿成的,因可以用“米”代表谷物粮食,故称为“米酒”也是较为恰当的。现在通行用“RiceWine”表示黄酒。在当代黄酒是谷物酿造酒的统称,以粮食为原料的酿造酒(不包括蒸馏的烧酒),都可归于黄酒类。黄酒虽作为谷物酿造酒的统称,但民间有些地区对本地酿造、且局限于本地销售的酒仍保留了一些传统的称谓,如江西的水酒,陕西的稠酒,西藏的青稞酒,如硬要说它们是黄酒,当地人也不一定能接受。
The essence of yellow rice wine should be made from grain. Because "rice" can be used to represent grain, it is also more appropriate to call it "rice wine". Now "ricewine" is commonly used to represent yellow rice wine. In modern times, yellow rice wine is the general name of grain brewing wine. The brewing wine with grain as raw material (excluding distilled Shaojiu) can be classified as yellow rice wine. Although yellow rice wine is a general term for grain brewing wine, some folk regions still retain some traditional appellations for locally brewed wine that is limited to local sales, such as water wine in Jiangxi, thick wine in Shaanxi, and highland barley wine in Tibet. If they insist that they are yellow rice wine, the local people may not be able to accept them.
在古代,“酒”是所有酒的统称,在蒸馏酒尚未出现的历史时期,“酒”就是酿造酒。蒸馏的烧酒出现后,就较为复杂了,“酒”这一名称既是所有酒的统称,在一些场合下,也是谷物酿造酒的统称,当时的酒分为三大类:
In ancient times, "wine" was the general name of all wine. In the historical period when distilled wine did not appear, "wine" was brewing wine. After the emergence of distilled Shaojiu, it became more complicated. The name "jiu" is not only the general name of all wines, but also the general name of grain brewing wines on some occasions. At that time, wines were divided into three categories:
酒、烧酒、葡萄酒。其中的“酒”这一节,都是谷物酿造酒,由于酒既是所有酒的统称,又是谷物酿造酒的统称,毕竟还应有一个只包括谷物酿造酒的统称。因此,黄酒作为谷物酿造酒的专用名称的出现不是偶然的。
Wine, Shaojiu, wine. The "wine" section is all about grain brewing wine. Since wine is not only the general name of all wines, but also the general name of grain brewing wine, after all, there should be a general name that only includes grain brewing wine. Therefore, the emergence of yellow rice wine as a special name for grain brewing wine is not accidental.
“黄酒”,在明代可能是专门指酿造时间较长、颜色较深的米酒,与“白酒”相区别,明代的“白酒”并不是现在的蒸馏烧酒,如明代有“三白酒”,是用白米、白曲和白水酿造而成的、酿造时间较短的酒,酒色混浊,呈白色。酒的黄色(或棕黄色等深色)的形成,主要是在煮酒或贮藏过程中,酒中的糖份与氨基酸形成美拉德反应,产生色素。也有的是加入焦糖制成的色素(称“糖色”)加深其颜色。
"Yellow rice wine" in the Ming Dynasty may specifically refer to rice wine with long brewing time and dark color, which is different from "Baijiu". The "Baijiu" in the Ming Dynasty is not the current distilled liquor. For example, there are "three Baijiu" in the Ming Dynasty, which are brewed from white rice, white koji and white water for a short time. The wine color is turbid and white. The yellow color (or dark color such as brownish yellow) of wine is mainly formed by Maillard reaction between sugar and amino acids in wine during cooking or storage, resulting in pigment. There are also some pigments made of caramel (called "sugar color") to deepen its color.
在明代戴羲所编辑的《养余月令》卷十一中则有:“凡黄酒白酒,少入烧酒,则经宿不酸”。从这一提法可明显看出黄酒、白酒和烧酒之间的区别,黄酒是指酿造时间较长的老酒,白酒则是指酿造时间较短的米酒(一般用白曲,即米曲作糖化发酵剂)。在明代,黄酒这一名称的专一性还不是很严格,虽然不能包含所有的谷物酿造酒,但起码南方各地酿酒规模较大的,在酿造过程中经过加色处理的酒都可以包括进去。
In the 11th volume of the order for raising the remaining months edited by Dai Xi in the Ming Dynasty, there is a saying: "if you don't use yellow rice wine or Baijiu, if you don't use Shaojiu, it won't be sour.". From this formulation, we can clearly see the difference between yellow rice wine, Baijiu and Shaojiu. Yellow rice wine refers to old wine with a long brewing time, while Baijiu refers to rice wine with a short brewing time (white koji is generally used, that is, rice koji is used as saccharifying and fermenting agent). In the Ming Dynasty, the specificity of the name yellow rice wine was not very strict. Although it could not include all grain brewing wines, at least the large-scale wine brewing in southern China could include the wine that had been colored in the brewing process.
到了清代,各地的酿造酒的生产虽然保存,但绍兴的老酒、加饭酒风靡全国,这种行销全国的酒,质量高,颜色一般是较深的,可能与“黄酒”这一名称的确立有一定的关系。因为清朝皇帝对绍兴酒有特殊的爱好。清代时已有所谓“禁烧酒而不禁黄酒”的说法。到了民国时期,黄酒作为谷物酿造酒的统称已基本确定下来。黄酒归属于土酒类(国产酒称为土酒,以示与舶来品的洋酒相对应)。
In the Qing Dynasty, although the production of brewed wine in various places was preserved, Shaoxing old wine and Jiafan wine were popular all over the country. This kind of wine sold all over the country has high quality and dark color, which may be related to the establishment of the name "yellow rice wine". Because the Qing emperor had a special interest in Shaoxing wine. In the Qing Dynasty, there was a saying that "cooking wine was forbidden and rice wine was forbidden". In the period of the Republic of China, yellow rice wine as a general term of grain brewing wine has been basically determined. Yellow rice wine belongs to local wine (domestic wine is called local wine to show that it corresponds to imported foreign wine).

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