What are the differences between Baijiu and rice wine? Chinese liquor is mainly divided into two categories: yellow rice wine and Baijiu. Baijiu needs distillation equipment and technology to improve the content of alcohol and enrich its taste, which is a new development. The root of Baijiu lies in yellow rice wine, so yellow rice wine has a high position in the history of Chinese food culture. (yellow rice wine is a big name relative to Baijiu, wine, etc. in addition to Shaoxing yellow rice wine, many yellow rice wines produced in China also use japonica rice, millet, corn, millet, wheat, etc. as the main raw materials, which are produced through the process of cooking, saccharification, fermentation, pressing, filtration, storage, blending, etc., and are not included in this article.)
Yellow rice wine is a national specialty of China, also known as rice wine. It belongs to brewing wine and plays an important role in the world's three major brewing wines (yellow rice wine, wine and beer). The brewing technology is unique and has become a typical representative and model in the Oriental brewing industry. Among them, maiqu rice wine represented by Shaoxing rice wine in Zhejiang Province is a representative product with a long history of rice wine; Shandong Jimo old wine is a typical representative of corn yellow rice wine in the north; Fujian Longyan chentan liquor and Fujian old liquor are typical representatives of red koji rice wine.
Yellow rice wine belongs to brewing wine, and its alcohol content is generally about 15 ℃. Yellow rice wine, as the name suggests, is yellow wine. So some people turn the name of yellow rice wine into "yellowwine". In fact, this is not appropriate. The color of yellow rice wine is not always yellow. In ancient times, when the filtering technology of wine was not mature, the wine was in a turbid state, which was called "Baijiu" or turbid wine at that time. The color of yellow rice wine is now black and red, so it can not be understood literally.
The essence of yellow rice wine should be made from grain. Because "rice" can be used to represent grain, it is also more appropriate to call it "rice wine". Now "ricewine" is commonly used to represent yellow rice wine. In modern times, yellow rice wine is the general name of grain brewing wine. The brewing wine with grain as raw material (excluding distilled Shaojiu) can be classified as yellow rice wine. Although yellow rice wine is a general term for grain brewing wine, some folk regions still retain some traditional appellations for locally brewed wine that is limited to local sales, such as water wine in Jiangxi, thick wine in Shaanxi, and highland barley wine in Tibet. If they insist that they are yellow rice wine, the local people may not be able to accept them.
In ancient times, "wine" was the general name of all wine. In the historical period when distilled wine did not appear, "wine" was brewing wine. After the emergence of distilled Shaojiu, it became more complicated. The name "jiu" is not only the general name of all wines, but also the general name of grain brewing wines on some occasions. At that time, wines were divided into three categories:
Wine, Shaojiu, wine. The "wine" section is all about grain brewing wine. Since wine is not only the general name of all wines, but also the general name of grain brewing wine, after all, there should be a general name that only includes grain brewing wine. Therefore, the emergence of yellow rice wine as a special name for grain brewing wine is not accidental.
"Yellow rice wine" in the Ming Dynasty may specifically refer to rice wine with long brewing time and dark color, which is different from "Baijiu". The "Baijiu" in the Ming Dynasty is not the current distilled liquor. For example, there are "three Baijiu" in the Ming Dynasty, which are brewed from white rice, white koji and white water for a short time. The wine color is turbid and white. The yellow color (or dark color such as brownish yellow) of wine is mainly formed by Maillard reaction between sugar and amino acids in wine during cooking or storage, resulting in pigment. There are also some pigments made of caramel (called "sugar color") to deepen its color.
In the 11th volume of the order for raising the remaining months edited by Dai Xi in the Ming Dynasty, there is a saying: "if you don't use yellow rice wine or Baijiu, if you don't use Shaojiu, it won't be sour.". From this formulation, we can clearly see the difference between yellow rice wine, Baijiu and Shaojiu. Yellow rice wine refers to old wine with a long brewing time, while Baijiu refers to rice wine with a short brewing time (white koji is generally used, that is, rice koji is used as saccharifying and fermenting agent). In the Ming Dynasty, the specificity of the name yellow rice wine was not very strict. Although it could not include all grain brewing wines, at least the large-scale wine brewing in southern China could include the wine that had been colored in the brewing process.
In the Qing Dynasty, although the production of brewed wine in various places was preserved, Shaoxing old wine and Jiafan wine were popular all over the country. This kind of wine sold all over the country has high quality and dark color, which may be related to the establishment of the name "yellow rice wine". Because the Qing emperor had a special interest in Shaoxing wine. In the Qing Dynasty, there was a saying that "cooking wine was forbidden and rice wine was forbidden". In the period of the Republic of China, yellow rice wine as a general term of grain brewing wine has been basically determined. Yellow rice wine belongs to local wine (domestic wine is called local wine to show that it corresponds to imported foreign wine).